ccTLDs - Become a Registrar

I was wonder if anyone within the group has done this research and might be able to save me a bit of time. I am in the process of putting together a new Registrar and we would like complete ccTLD coverage. I know for example CIRA (.ca) has a Canadian Presence Requirement and we have formed a Canadian Corporation to meet this requirement.

I am hoping to find what other TLD operators may have similar requirements.


.br also has such requirements. OpenSRS reference chart has a good hint of
which ccTLDs have such requirements:

While it details the registration requirements, usually they are aligned:
most ccTLDs that are restricted to local residents also restrict registrars
to be locally incorporated.


wow, 256 of 539 report "no" for DNSSEC.

> I am hoping to find what other TLD operators may have similar requirements.

.br also has such requirements. OpenSRS reference chart has a good hint of
which ccTLDs have such requirements:

It might be advisable to verify the data. For instance, the chart claims
no DNSSEC for .no (Norway) - but in reality, .no has been offering DNSSEC
since 2014,

and about 58% of .no domains use DNSSEC - see graph on the right hand side

Steinar Haug, Nethelp consulting,

For DNSSEC this one is more reliable:

Rubens is more on topic of we what discussing,
although the monitor is interesting too.


wow, 256 of 539 report "no" for DNSSEC.

Having a look at the link, it seems it's representing the options of the opensrs system and not necessarily the options of the registry.

For .de e.g. the registry DENIC provides DNSSEC.

Just my 2 Cent,

That's why we're working on DNSSEC automation, to let the DNS Operator sign the zone and automate the provisioning of DS record into the registry without registrant or registrar intervention. Multiple methods and approach being work on.

API for DNS Operator:
Registry full zone polling:


Some have due diligence checks for finance and trade references. However, covering all ccTLDs may not be feasible as some of the smaller ones (<10K registrations) may still use manual processing of applications.

From what I remember, some of the EU registries may have liberalised and a point of presence company/corporation within the EU or even a US/Canadian company might be sufficient.

The real issue with ccTLDs for end users will be sorting out the requirements for registration. Some ccTLDs like .UK or .ME may have relatively liberal/open registration requirements for their most popular subdomains (e.g .CO.UK) but have, in the case of .UK, different requirements for registering at .UK level. The .EU nominally requires registrants to be within or connected to the EU or European Economic Area. The .DE ccTLD requires a German point of contact for registrations but that might be handled by forming a local company.

The main ccTLDs for any new registar venture would be the ones with a liberal registration policy. The more restrictive ones might require a lot more handholding and paperwork for the registrants and unless your new registrar venture is concentrating on brand protection registrations, it might be best to steer clear of these initially.

Most ccTLD markets are heavily dominated by in-country registrars and they can be quite difficult for a foreign registrar to gain market share. They also have very different dynamics to the legacy TLDs like COM/NET/ORG and the gTLDs. The one year renewal rates for some of them can be 70% or higher. Web usage also tends to be higher for some ccTLDs so a registrant buying a domain name/hosting package is somewhat more likely to use that hosting. In a ccTLDs Web Usage Survey I ran last month, the Content/No Content rate (the totals of (domain names with developed content) / (domain names on holding pages/PPC/sales/unavailable/no website) ) for .DE ccTLD was 0.92, .ES was 0.48, .EU was 0.37, .FR was 0.58, .UK was 0.39 and .US was 0.13. These are based on random 110,000 domain name samples. It is simpler to express this as a kind of development rate as the surveys have approximately 28 categories of usage. The development rate excludes redirects as it is a simple content related metric.

In some markets, the local ccTLD dominates the market and the COM/NET/ORG and gTLDs have gone legacy. The main TLD pair for most developed markets will be the ccTLD/COM. The NET and ORG generally tend to be legacy TLDs rather than attracting high volumes of new registrations in these countries. While you may not be concentrating on the new gTLDs, if you are targeting markets with a strong ccTLD, also consider the new gTLD geo TLD if it is applicable. (.IRISH for Ireland, .LONDON, .SCOT, .CYMRU, .WALES for the UK, .BERLIN, .RUHR etc for Germany, .RIO for Brazil, .NYC, .VEGAS, .MIAMI for the US etc.) Many of these are early stage TLDs (low registration volume and relatively low use but that's typical for new gTLDs as some of these seem to be following a ccTLD development curve rather than a gTLD development curve) but they tend to be different from less precisely targeted new gTLDs.