The multi-million dollar fines announced with great fanfaire by the Federal Communication Commission are almost never collected. The FCC doesn't have enforcement authority to collect fines. The FCC usually withholds license renewals until penalties are paid. If the violator doesn't have any FCC licenses (or doesn't care), the FCC is powerless.
The FCC refers uncollected penalties to the Department of Justice. In the past, DOJ didn't prioritize uncollected penalties and most fines were never enforced.
The Department of Justice Files Suit to Recover $9.9 Million Forfeiture Penalty for Nearly 5,000 Illegally Spoofed Robocalls
My normal test for this is to register a new domain name and leave my whois info public.
Over the span of 1-2 weeks I will usually get 50-100 calls from people with a certain accent asking for a mispronunciation of my name and if I need a website developed. Then I forward them over to my spam recording line.
I registered a handful of new domains this week, and I’ve had less than 5 calls so far.
We have telco’s registered in the US, Cyprus and Israel. Lately I’m Europe we have been getting emails from people using protonmail. The conversation dies one we ask for business registration documents.