(hope the inclusion of URLs in the notes isn't
making them all end up in people's spam
2006.06.07 Vince Fuller, from Cisco
and Jason Schiller from UUnet
[slides are at:
IPv6 issues routing and multihoming
scalability with respect to routing issues.
how we got where we are today
define "locator" "endpoint-id" and their functions
Explain why these concepts matter, why this
separation is a good thing
understand that v4 and v6 mingle these functions,
and why it matters
recognized exponential growth - late 1980s
CLNS as IP replacement dec 1990 IETF
OSI, TP4 over CLNS--edict handed down from IETF
revolt against that, IP won
ROAD group and the "three trucks" 1991-1992
running out of "class-B" network numbers
explosive growth of "default-free" routing table
eventual exhaustion of 32-bit address space
two efforts -- short-term vs long-term
More at "the long and winding ROAD"
Supernetting and CIDR 1992-1993
Two efforts to fix it; CIDR, short term effort,
long term effort became IPv6.
IETF ipng solicitation RFC 1550 Dec 1993
Direction and technical criteria for ipng choice
RFC1719 and RFC 1726, Dec 1994
proliferation of proposals
TUBA == IP over CLNS
NIMROD==how to deal with it from high level
Lots of flaming back and forth, not much good
choice eventually made on political choices, not
Things lost in shuffle...er compromise included:
variable length addresses
decoupling of transport and network-layer addresses
clear separation of endpoint-id/locator (more later)
"math is hard, let's go shopping" -- solving the
real issues was set aside, people focused on
writing packet headers instead
identity -- what's in a name
think of an "endpoint-id" as the "name" of a device
or protocol stack instance that is communicating over
in the real world, this is like your "name"--who you are.
a "domain name" is a human readable analogue
persistent--long term binding, stays around as long as
machine is up
ease of administrative assignment
hierarchy along organization boundry (like DNS), not
stay the same no matter where in the hierarchy you
unlike human names.
Locators: "where" you are in the network
think of "source" and "dest" addresses in routing and
forwarding as locators
real-world analogy is street addresses or phone numbers.
typically some hierarchy (like address), or like
historical phone number (before portability!)
Desireable properties of locators:
hierarchical assignment according to topology (isomorphic)
dynamic, transparent renumbering without disruption
unique when fully specified, but may be abstracted to
reduce unwanted state
realworld--don't need to exact street address in Australia
to fly there
Possbly applied to traffic without end-system knowledge
effectively like NAT, but doesn't beak end-to-end
Why should I care?
v4/v6 there are only "addresses" which serve as both
endpoint-ids and locators
this means they don't have the desirable properties of
assignment to organizations is painful because use as
locator constrains it to be topological
exceptions to topology create additional global state
renumbering is hard; DHCP isn't enough, sessions
get distrupted, source-based filtering breaks, etc.
Doesn't scale for large numbers of "provider-indep"
or multihomed sites
why should I care?
currently, v6 is only a few hundred prefixes; won't be
a problem until it really ccatches on, at which point
it's too late.
larger v6 space gives potentially more pain
NAT is effectively id/locator split--what happens if
NAT goes away in v6?
scale of IP networks still very small compared to what
it could grow to
re-creating the routing swamp with ipv6 with longer
addresses could be disasterous; not clear if internet
could be saved in that case.
Been ignored by IETF for 10+ years
concepts have been known since 60s.
Can v6 be fixed? And what is GSE, anyhow?
Mike O'Dell proposed this in 1997 with 8+8/GSE
keep v6 packet format, implement id/locator split
basic idea: separate 16-byte addrss into 8-byte EID
and 8-byte routing goop/locator
change TCP/UDP to only care about 8-bytes.
allow routing system to muck with other 8 bytes in-flight
achieves goal of EID/locator split while keeping most of
IPv6, hopefully without requiring new database for
Allows for scalable multi-homing
Renumbering can be fast and painless/transparent to hosts.
problems with it--incompatible changes to TCP/UDP
in 1997, no IPv6 installed base, easy to change;
now, v6 deployed, is it too late to change?
violation of end-to-end principle.
perceived security weakness of trusting "naked" EID
(steve bellovin says this is a non-issue)
mapping of EID to EID+RG may add complexity to DNS
depending on how implemented
scalable TE not in original design; will differ from
v4 TE, may invole NAT-like RG re-wriete
currently not being pursued--killed by IETF politics.
GSE is only one approach
isn't only way to do this, but is a straightforward
retro-fit to existing protocols
[see slide, flipped past pretty quickly]
big problem, *no* approaches being pursued.
what about shim6/multi6
approx 3-year-old IETF effort to retro-fit an
[wow, he's running low on time, cranking through it]
Nobody really likes it, but for different cases/reasons.
What if nothing changed
how about a "thought experiment"
make assumptions about v6 and internet growth
take a guess at growth trends
pose some questions
cloudy crystal ball
v6 deployed in parallel to v4, widely adopted
v4 will be predominant; will be used indefinitely
v4 routing state growth will continue to grow at
superlinear rate, up to or beyond address exhaustion
will just get chunked up smaller and smaller
routers in DFZ zone will continue to need more and
v6 prefix assignments allow orgs to aggregate their
space into a single prefix.
shim6 won't see large adoption
v4 style multihoming will expand into v6
Questions to worry about
how much routing state growth due to orgs needing
will growth rate decrease to number of ASes?
in v4, prefix to AS is 6:1, will it be 1:1 in v6?
can we reduce unintentional deagg?
what is churn rate?
can we reduce intentional deagg?
if we add more state to routing for security, what
happens to CPUs? (SBGP/soBGP)
Geoff Huston's v4 BGP growth report
starting to look like quadratic growth...
Jason's analysis: future routing state size
v6 widespread adoption *will* happen; what will it
looks at v4 routing table to decide what likely
Based on Tony Bates CIDR report.
prefixes: 180,219, 111K aggregated; so 1/3 are
traffic engineering prefixes
so, current 180K v4 prefixes
21K v6 prefixes
61K v6 TE prefixes
50-150K internal routes for tier 1
40-120K customer VPN/deagg'd routes
352-532K prefixes total
a single AS that has multiple non-contiguous
assignments that would still announce same number
with removal of NAT, will people who hid multiple
blocks for TE behind NATs, will they need more
what about new v6 only networks for mobile phones,
intentional deaggregates seems to be steepest
quadratic curve on his chart.
He plots UUnet internal deaggs, they are also
650K to 1M routes in 5 years
in 10 years, 1.1M low to 1.8M on high side.
Marshall Eubanks on ppml
Are these numbers ridiculous?
How many multi-homed sites could there really be?
consider as upper bound the number of small-to-med
suggests up to 6M SMB prefixes would show up.
Jason's conclusion--make sure we know what we're
getting into when we talk about v6 without fixing
the routing hierarchy. Can router vendors build
boxes to solve this, or do we need to fix the
Vince notes the hardware vendors loved the quadratic
growth in the late nineties, with 3 year turnovers;
helped Cisco become the giant it is.
bunch of recommended reading slides.
10 minutes over into lightning talks already.
5 minutes of questions, and then MUST move on.
Q: Steve Bellovin, columbia university--been pushing
id/locator sep since 1986; nobody had been working
on it; Vint Cerf said he tried it way back when, it's
hard. He does note this still has open denial of
service challenges that need to be addressed; but
Steve does agree they aren't show stoppers.
Q: Randy Bush, IIJ, been discussing this know for quite
some time--where to talk about it? it's been talked
about everywhere, problem is the people who need to
write it are burned out. Alain Durand is a perfect
example of ipv6 usage that doesn't pollute the global
Should we bother, or just resign ourselves to signing
up for buying new routers every 3 years?
Q: Alan--is there a mathematical model that looks at
the different routing protocols, BGP in particular,
to show where it simply will fail to converge?
on it; imagine a perfect network, infinite CPU,
zero latency; can someone do the math and find out
where the hard ceiling is?
Sounds like a fine research question.
Q: Jared Mauch, NTT, what alternatives do we have for
BGP, or what are we doing to resolve that issue.
being held, regardless of how you pass it around.
Q: Jared notes operator burnout is significant, and
the frustration with IETF is serious; can we solve
this on our own outside the IETF?
Q: Tony Hain, Cisco. Security infrasctrure built around
overload; that it can look at locator to know 'who' is
being talked to.
Mike O'Dell also responsible for part of the problem
if you are going to play, there is ONE global default
free zone. Does that assumption make sense?
Take it up on the mailing list, on architecture discuss
Q: Rob Seastrom: fundamental disconnect, rough consensus
and working code disconnect. Nobody has working code,
so this discussion is simply flailing. Discussion
on mailing list may be bringing vendors to table.
On to the lightning talks!!